This cross-cutting theme addresses the role that gender plays in shaping economic opportunities, especially for adolescent girls and young women. Understanding the importance of gender in youth economic opportunities programming helps stakeholders identify constraints and opportunities that can increase effective participation levels of both sexes, or determine when sex-specific programs are most appropriate.

Where are we now?

With a population of nearly 7 billion people, adolescent girls, young women, and older women—in their multiple roles as workers, caregivers, and mothers—are critical to sustainable economic development. Talent is one of the most important determinants of competitiveness. Countries that can garner innovation and creativity, and leverage the economic participation of its entire population are more likely to succeed in today’s challenging global landscape. For example, the Nike Foundation found that if young Nigerian women had the same employment rates as young men, the country would add US $13.9 billion annually.1 Thus, the case for empowering girls and young women and leveraging their talent is compelling because it makes both economic and social sense.

Trends and Emerging Practices

  • Girls as young as ten are economic participants in their households and capable of saving.  By recognizing girls as economic participants, organizations can provide them with access to both financial literacy and savings offerings they require to mitigate risk later in life.
  • Investing in young women pays off for their families as well. Women invest 90% of their earnings back into their families compared to men who invest 30% or 40%.2
  • Girls who are less financially dependent are at less risk of HIV infection and negative effects of early pregnancy and child bearing.
  • Adolescent girls and young women must be differentiated. Girls face unique challenges and are at distinct developmental and life stages that need tailored programming. There are very few studies or statistics that paint an accurate picture of the lives of girls and the impacts of programs on them and their communities.
  • Disaggregation of data by both age and gender shows evidence for more effective program investments. Studies by groups, such as the Population Council, indicate that many organizations inadvertently favor older and male youth participants in their programs, many of whom have already benefitted from support. Married and less visible young women, on the other hand, are often unable to access programs. 
  • Any program designed to benefit young women should take into consideration what needs to happen with community stakeholders, the role of men and boys in that community, and what kinds of strategies will ensure girls benefit from the program and gain support of the community to thrive in ways that may challenge cultural and societal norms.
  • For very vulnerable young women – diversifying income sources, developing self-confidence, and acquiring assets in the form of savings are likely better indicators of improvement than income itself.

Gender: Blogs

Advancing an Evidence-Based Agenda for the World’s Young Women & Girls (and Boys!)

Originally published NRG Advisory on April 11, 2015  

Last month at the United Nations, as Women’s History Month was drawing to a close, Intergovernmental negotiations continued toward a post-2015 framework to follow the expiring Millennium Development Goals with a focus on goals, targets and indicators. Promoting gender equality remained one of the top priorities.

Celebrating Young African Women Entrepreneurs and Mentors During Global Money Week

Originally published by Camfed on March 11, 2015.

The young leaders of CAMA, Camfed’s alumnae association, are showing their communities and nations how a little bit of money can go a long way when young women have access to a quality education, and the opportunity to grow their ideas and share their knowledge.

How Comics are Helping WalMart Prepare 200K Women for Work

Originally published by International Youth Foundation on February 25, 2015

Including Childcare in Youth Employment Projects

In many settings, women are the primary childcare providers, and motherhood begins during adolescence. For young mothers without strong family and social support systems, lack of affordable childcare can prevent them from participating in youth employment projects. Accessible childcare services can increase young women’s participation rates in training, their productivity (in terms of decreased absenteeism and retention), and there may also be benefits for children’s development outcomes.

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Results-Based Approaches to Improve Inclusion and Job Placement

Job placement services that help young people put their new skills to use are an important element of successful youth skills training programs. This note looks at how pilots in the Adolescent Girls Initiative focus on employment as an outcome and emphasize placement assistance alongside training. The note also describes how results-based approaches can be applied to encourage training providers to assume greater responsibility for achieving employment outcomes, and discusses the need for outcome verification and safeguards against potential pitfalls that incentive schemes may invoke.

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Measuring Impact in the AGI Pilots

Through pilot interventions that are rigorously evaluated, the Adolescent Girls Initiative (AGI) is providing cross-country evidence on how programs can help smooth young women’s transition to productive work. Researchers and policymakers know a lot about the challenges faced by young women accessing the labor market, but much less about the types of programs that work best for helping them succeed. By measuring the impact of programs and delivering important lessons on design and targeting, the AGI evaluations aim to improve policy decisions around adolescent girl programming.

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